Publications

Scholarly Journals--Published

  • Blake Schultze, Paniz Karbasi,Christina Sarosiek,..,Vladimir Bashkirov, Reinhard Schulte. Particle-Tracking Proton Computed Tomography Data Acquisition, Preprocessing, and Preconditioning. February 2021, IEEE Access PP(99):1-1 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/349147391_Particle-Tracking_Proton_Computed_Tomography_Data_Acquisition_Preprocessing_and_Preconditioning (02/2021) (link)
  • Jannis Dickmann, Christina Sarosiek, Victor Rykalin, Vladimir Bashkirov et al., Proof of concept image artifact reduction by energy-modulated proton computed tomography (EMpCT). Physica Medica 81(3):237-244; DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.12.012 Abstract Purpose To reduce imaging artifacts and improve image quality of a specific proton computed tomography (pCT) prototype scanner by combining pCT data acquired at two different incident proton energies to avoid protons stopping in sub-optimal detector sections. Methods Image artifacts of a prototype pCT scanner are linked to protons stopping close to internal structures of the scanner’s multi-stage energy detector. We aimed at avoiding such protons by acquiring pCT data at two different incident energies and combining the data in post-processing from which artifact-reduced images of the relative stopping power (RSP) were calculated. Energy-modulated pCT (EMpCT) images were assessed visually and quantitatively and compared to the original mono-energetic images in terms of RSP accuracy and noise. Data were acquired for a homogeneous water phantom. Results RSP images reconstructed from the mono-energetic datasets displayed local image artifacts which were ring-shaped due to the homogeneity of the phantom. The merged EMpCT dataset achieved a superior visual image quality with reduced artifacts and only minor remaining rings. The inter-quartile range (25/75) of RSP values was reduced from 0.7% with the current standard acquisition to 0.2% with EMpCT due to the reduction of ring artifacts. In this study, dose was doubled compared to a standard scan, but we discuss strategies to reduce excess dose. Conclusions EMpCT allows to effectively avoid regions of the energy detector that cause image artifacts. Thereby, image quality is improved. (01/2021) (link)
  • Magdalena Garbacz, R. Schulte. , Vladimir A Bashkirov et al. PO-1615: Detection and analysis of scattered protons for verification of FLASH lung tumor proton therapy, Radiotherapy and Oncology,152; DOI: 10.1016/S0167-8140(21)01633-9   (11/2020) (link)
  • Georgios Dedesm Jannis Dickmann, Vladimir bashkirov, Katharina Niepel, Katia Parodi et al., Experimental comparison of proton CT and dual energy X–ray CT for relative stopping power estimation in proton therapyPhysics in Medicine and Biology 64(16), June 2019. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6560/ab2b72 06/2019 (06/2019)
  • Lennart Volz, Pierluigi Piersimoni, Vladimir A Bashkirov et al. The impact of secondary fragments on the image quality of helium ion imaging. Physics in Medicine and Biology 63(19). September 2018, DOI:10.1088/1361-6560/aadf25 (09/2018)
  • Dedes G, Angelis L, Rit S, Bashkirov V et al.  Fluence modulated proton computed tomography. Physica Medica (2017) 42 29-30   (12/2017)
  • Johnson R, Bashkirov V, Coutrakon G  et al.  Results from a Prototype Proton-CT Head Scanner.  Physics Procedia (2017) 90 209-214   (10/2017)
  • Bashkirov V., Schulte R, Hurley Ret al. Novel scintillation detector design and performance for proton radiography and computed tomography. Medical Physics (2016) 43(2)   (05/2016)
  • Casiraghi M, Bashkirov V A, Hurley R F, & Schulte R W. (2015). CHARACTERISATION OF A TRACK STRUCTURE IMAGING DETECTOR. Radiat Prot Dosimetry, , . The spatial distribution of radiation-induced ionisations in sub-cellular structures plays an important role in the initial formation of radiation damage to biological tissues. Using the nanodosimetry approach, physical characteristics of the track structure can be measured and correlated to DNA damage. In this work, a novel nanodosimeter is presented, which detects positive ions produced by radiation interacting with a gas-sensitive volume in order to obtain a high resolution image of the radiation track structure. The characterisation of the detector prototype was performed and different configurations of the device were tested by varying the detector cathode material and the working gas. Preliminary results show that the ionisation cluster size distribution can be obtained with this approach. Further work is planned to improve the detector efficiency in order to register the complete three-dimensional track structure of ionising radiation. (04/2015) (link)
  • Plautz Tia, Bashkirov V, Feng V, Hurley F, Johnson R P, . . . Zatserklyaniy A. (2014). 200 MeV Proton Radiography Studies With a Hand Phantom Using a Prototype Proton CT Scanner. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 33(4), 875-881. Proton radiography has applications in patient alignment and verification procedures for proton beam radiation therapy. In this paper, we report an experiment which used 200 MeV protons to generate proton energy-loss and scattering radiographs of a hand phantom. The experiment used the first-generation proton computed tomography (CT) scanner prototype, which was installed on the research beam line of the clinical proton synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. It was found that while both radiographs displayed anatomical details of the hand phantom, the energy-loss radiograph had a noticeably higher resolution. Nonetheless, scattering radiography may yield more contrast between soft and bone tissue than energy-loss radiography, however, this requires further study. This study contributes to the optimization of the performance of the next-generation of clinical proton CT scanners. Furthermore, it demonstrates the potential of proton imaging (proton radiography and CT), which is now within reach of becoming available as a new, potentially low-dose medical imaging modality. (04/2014) (link)
  • Casiraghi Margherita, Bashkirov Vladimir, Hurley Ford, & Schulte Reinhard. (2014). A novel approach to study radiation track structure with nanometer-equivalent resolution. European Physical Journal D -- Atoms, Molecules, Clusters & Optical Physics, 68(5), 1-6. Clustered DNA damages are considered the critical lesions in the pathways leading from the initial energy deposition by radiation to radiobiological damage. The spatial distribution of the initial DNA damage is mainly determined by radiation track-structure at the nanometer level. In this work, a novel experimental approach to image the three-dimensional structure of micrometric radiation track segments is presented. The approach utilizes the detection of single ions created in low-pressure gas. Ions produced by radiation drift towards a GEM-like 2D hole-pattern detector. When entering individual holes, ions can induce ion-impact ionization of the working-gas starting a confined electron avalanche that generates the output signal. By registering positive ions rather than electrons, diffusion is reduced and a spatial resolution of the track image of the order of water-equivalent nanometers can be achieved. Measurements and simulations to characterize the performance of a few detector designs were performed. Different cathode materials were tested and ionization cluster size distributions of Am alpha particles were measured. The electric field configuration in the detector was calculated to optimize the ion focusing into the detector holes. The preliminary results obtained show the directions for further development of the detector. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Physical Journal D -- Atoms, Molecules, Clusters & Optical Physics is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.) (2014) (link)
  • Sadrozinski H F W, Johnson R P, Macafee S, Plumb A, Steinberg D, . . . Schulte R W. (2013). Development of a head scanner for proton CT. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 699, 205-210. We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (01/2013) (link)
  • Sipala V, Randazzo N, Aiello S, Leonora E, Lo Presti D, . . . Schulte R W. (2011). YAG(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beams. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 654(1), 349-353. A YAG(Ce) crystal has been characterized with a proton beam up to 100 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. A crystal size has been chosen that is able to stop up to 200 MeV. Energy resolution and light response have been measured at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with a proton beam up to 60 MeV and a spatial homogeneity study of the crystal has been performed at Loma Linda University Medical Center with a 100 MeV proton beam. The YAG(Ce) crystal showed a good energy resolution equal to 3.7% at 60 MeV and measurements, performed in the 30-60 MeV proton energy range, were fitted by Birks' equation. Using a silicon tracker to determine the particle entry point in the crystal, a spatial homogeneity value of 1.7% in the light response has been measured. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (10/2011) (link)
  • J Missaghian, F Hurley, V Bashkirov, B Colby, V Rykalin, S Kachigiun, D Fusi, R Schulte, F Martinez Mckinney, H Sadrozinski and S Penfold Beam test results of a CsI calorimeter matrix element Journal of Instrumentation Volume 5 June 2010  (06/2010)
  • Garty G, Schulte R, Shchemelinin S, Leloup C, Assaf G, . . . Grosswendt B. (2010). A nanodosimetric model of radiation-induced clustered DNA damage yields. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 55(3), 761-781. We present a nanodosimetric model for predicting the yield of double strand breaks (DSBs) and non-DSB clustered damages induced in irradiated DNA. The model uses experimental ionization cluster size distributions measured in a gas model by an ion counting nanodosimeter or, alternatively, distributions simulated by a Monte Carlo track structure code developed to simulate the nanodosimeter. The model is based on a straightforward combinatorial approach translating ionizations, as measured or simulated in a sensitive gas volume, to lesions in a DNA segment of one-two helical turns considered equivalent to the sensitive volume of the nanodosimeter. The two model parameters, corresponding to the probability that a single ion detected by the nanodosimeter corresponds to a single strand break or a single lesion (strand break or base damage) in the equivalent DNA segment, were tuned by fitting the model-predicted yields to previously measured double-strand break and double-strand lesion yields in plasmid DNA irradiated with protons and helium nuclei. Model predictions were also compared to both yield data simulated by the PARTRAC code for protons of a wide range of different energies and experimental DSB and non-DSB clustered DNA damage yield data from the literature. The applicability and limitations of this model in predicting the LET dependence of clustered DNA damage yields are discussed. (02/2010) (link)
  • Talamonti C, Reggioli V, Bruzzi M, Bucciolini M, Civinini C, . . . Schulte R. (2010). Proton radiography for clinical applications. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 612(3), 571-575. Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images c, in be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton c, imputed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within be tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (01/2010) (link)
  • Talamonti, C.; Reggioli, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Civinini, C.; Marrazzo, L.; Menichelli, D.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Petterson, M.; Blumenkrantz, N.; Feldt, J.; Heimann, J.; Lucia, D.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D.C.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Bashkirov, V. (01/2010 - 02/2010)
  • V. Bashkirov, R. Schulte, A. Wroe, H. Sadrozinski, E. Gargioni, and B. Grosswendt Experimental Validation of Track Structure Models IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 56 (5), OCTOBER 2009 (09/2009)
  • Bashkirov, V.A., Schulte, R.W., Penfold, S.N., Rosenfeld, A.B. Proton computed tomography: Update on current status IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 6, art. no. 4437152, pp. 4685-4688. (2007) (09/2007)
  • V.Bashkirov , R.Schulte, G.Coutrakon, B.Erdelyi, K. Wong, H.Sadrozinski, S.Penfold, A.Rosenfeld, S.McAllister, K.Schubert. Development of Proton Computed Tomography for Applications in Proton Therapy. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1099, 460-463, 2009 (09/2007)
  • Wong, K., Erdelyi, B., Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Coutrakon, G., Sadrozinski, H., Penfold, S., Rosenfeld, A. The effect of tissue inhomogeneities on the accuracy of proton path reconstruction for proton computed tomography AIP Conference Proceedings, 1099, pp. 476-480. 2009 (09/2007)
  • Schulte, R.W., Wroe, A.J., Bashkirov, V.A., Garty, G.Y., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Shchemelinin, S., Gargioni, E., Grosswendt, B., Rosenfeld, A.B. Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection in space Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Physik, 18 (4), pp. 286-296. (2008) (09/2007)
  • Schulte, R.W., Bashkirov, V., Klock, M.C.L., Li, T., Wroe, A.J., Evseev, I., Williams, D.C., Satogata, T. Density resolution of proton computed tomography Medical Physics, 32 (4), pp. 1035-1046. (2005) (09/2005)
  • Leloup, C., Garty, G., Assaf, G., Cristovão, A., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Shchemelinin, S., Paz-Elizur, T., Livneh, Z., Schulte, R.W., Bashkirov, V., Milligan, J.R., Grosswendt, B. Evaluation of lesion clustering in irradiated plasmid DNA International Journal of Radiation Biology, 81 (1), pp. 41-54. (2005) (09/2005)
  • Cuttone, G., Cirrone, G.A.P., Candiano, G., Di Rosa, F., Russo, G., Randazzo, N., Sipala, V., Lo Nigro, S., Lo Presti, D., Feldt, J., Heimann, J., Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Seiden, A., Williams, D.C., Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R., Bruzzi, M., Menichelli, D., Scaringella, M. Detailed Monte Carlo investigation of a proton computed tomography system IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 5, art. no. 1596931, pp. 2873-2875. (2005) (09/2005)
  • Feldt, J., Heimann, J., Blumenkrantz, N., Lucia, D., Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Seiden, A., Sowerwine, W., Williams, D.C., Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R., Bruzzi, M., Menichelli, D., Scaringella, M., Cirrone, G.A.P., Cuttone, G., Randazzo, N., Sipala, V., Presti, D.L. Prototype tracking studies for proton CT IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 1, art. no. 1596207, pp. 59-63. (2005) (09/2005)
  • Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Shchemelinin, S., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Garty, G., Wroe, A., Grosswendt, B. Mapping the sensitive volume of an ion-counting nanodosimeter Journal of Instrumentation, 1 (1), pp. 1-14. (2006) (09/2005)
  • Wroe, A., Rosenfeld, A., Cornelius, I., Prokopovich, D., Reinhard, M., Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V. Silicon microdosimetry in heterogeneous materials: Simulation and experiment IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 53 (6), pp. 3738-3744. (2006) (09/2005)
  • Garty, G., Schulte, R., Shchemelinin, S., Grosswendt, B., Leloup, C., Assaf, G., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Bashkirov, V. First attempts at prediction of DNA strand-break yields using nanodosimetric data Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 122 (1-4), pp. 451-454. (2006) (09/2005)
  • Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Schemelinin, S., Garty, G., Wroe, A., Sadrozinski, H., Grosswendt, B. Ion-counting nanodosemeter with particle tracking capabilities Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 122 (1-4), pp. 415-419. (2006) (09/2005 - 09/2006)
  • Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Bashkirov, V., Keeney, B., Johnson, L.R., Peggs, S.G., Ross, G., Satogata, T., Schulte, R.W.M., Seiden, A., Shanazi, K., Williams, D.C. Toward proton computed tomography IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 51 (1 I), pp. 3-9. (2004) (09/2003)
  • Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Li, T., Liang, Z., Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Williams, D.C. Nanoparticle-enhanced proton computed tomography: A monte carlo simulation study 2004 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Macro to Nano, 2, pp. 1354-1356. (2004) (09/2003)
  • Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Li, T., Liang, Z., Mueller, K., Heimann, J., Johnson, L.R., Keeney, B., Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Seiden, A., Williams, D.C., Zhang, L., Li, Z., Peggs, S., Satogata, T., Woody, C. Conceptual design of a proton computed tomography system for applications in proton radiation therapy IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 51 (3 III), pp. 866-872. (2004) (09/2003)
  • Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Bashkirov, V., Bruzzi, M., Ebrahimi, M., Feldt, J., Heimann, J., Keeney, B., Martinez-McKinney, F., Menichelli, D., Nelson, G., Nesom, G., Schulte, R.W.M., Seiden, A., Spencer, E., Wray, J., Zhang, L. The particle tracking silicon microscope PTSM IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 51 (5 I), pp. 2032-2036. (2004) (09/2003)
  • Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Garty, G., Leloup, C., Shchemelinin, S., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Milligan, J., Grosswendt, B. Ion-counting nanodosimetry: Current status and future applications Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 26 (4), pp. 149-155. (2003) (09/2001)
  • Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Shchemelinin, S., Garty, G., Chechik, R., Breskin, A. Modeling of radiation action based on nanodosimetric event spectra Physica Medica, 17 (SUPPL. 1), pp. 177-180. (2001) (09/2001)
  • Keeney, B., Bashkirov, V., Johnson, R.P., Kroeger, W., Ohyama, H., Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Schulte, R.W.M., Seiden, A., Spradlin, P. A silicon telescope for applications in nanodosimetry IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 49 I (4), pp. 1724-1727. (2002) (09/2001)
  • Garty, G., Shchemelinin, S., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Orion, I., Guedes, G.P., Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Grosswendt, B. Wall-less ion-counting nanodosimetry applied to protons Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 99 (1-4), pp. 325-330. (2002) (09/2001)
  • Garty, G., Shchemelinin, S., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Assaf, G., Orion, I., Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R., Grosswendt, B. The performance of a novel ion-counting nanodosimeter Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 492 (1-2), pp. 212-235. (2002) (09/2001)
  • Johnson, L.R., Keeney, B., Ross, G., Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Seiden, A., Williams, D.C., Zhang, L., Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R.W., Shahnazi, K. Monte Carlo Studies on Proton Computed Tomography using a Silicon Strip Detector Telescope IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 2, pp. 916-920. (2002) (09/2001)
  • Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Bashkirov, V., Bruzzi, M., Johnson, L.R., Keeney, B., Ross, G., Schulte, R.W., Seiden, A., Shahnazi, K., Williams, D.C., Zhang, L. Issues in Proton Computed Tomography Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 511 (1-2), pp. 275-281. (2003) (09/2001)
  • Johnson, L., Keeney, B., Ross, G., Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., Seiden, A., Williams, D.C., Zhang, L., Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R.W., Shahnazi, K. Initial studies on proton computed tomography using a silicon strip detector telescope Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 514 (1-3), pp. 215-223. (2003) (09/2001)
  • Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R.W. Dosimetry system for the irradiation of thin biological samples with therapeutic proton beams Physics in Medicine and Biology, 47 (3), pp. 409-420.(2002) (09/2001)
  • Bashkirov, V. Particle identification by relativistic rise of time above threshold in gaseous detectors Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A, 433 (1), pp. 560-563. (1999)    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Bashkirov V.A.Author and co-author of more then 200 papers published in leading physics journals (Phys.Lett.,    Phys.Rev., Nucl.Phys. ,Eur.Phys.J., IEEE Trans. Nucl.Sci., Nucl.Instr.Meth. e.t.c.)  in the field of High Energy Physics and Medical Physic, see   list of some publications below, first  paper published in: (09/1979)
  • Missaghian J, Hurley F, Bashkirov V, Colby B, Rykalin V, . . . Penfold S. (2010). Beam test results of a CsI calorimeter matrix element. Journal of Instrumentation, 5, . This paper presents the test results of a single element of a Cesium Iodide CsI(TI) crystal calorimeter matrix using proton beam energies of 35MeV, 100MeV and 200MeV. The detector element was designed to comply with the demands of high energy resolution of a few percent and with a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude under a counting rate of 10 kHz per channel. The energy range investigated in the current work was an order of magnitude less than the design capability. The readout was provided by a 28 x 28 mm(2) Hamamatsu S3584-08 photodiode coupled with the crystal through a silicone optical interface. A charge-sensitive preamplifier with low noise at high photodiode capacitance was chosen. We also report on the data acquired during crystal calibration with cosmic rays, and give a description of our data acquisition (DAQ) system. (06/1979) (link)
  • Bashkirov V.A Govorov V.V., Dobretzov Y.P., Dplgoshein B.A. Zalikhanov B.S., Zinov V.G., Kirillov-Ugryumov V.G., Nevski P.L. Observation of Mu – Nucleonic Chlorine Atom. JETP Letters, 29 , 271-274, 1979. (01/1979 - 09/1980)

Scholarly Journals--Accepted

  • George Dedes, Jannis Dickmann, Valentina Giacometti, Simon Rit, Nils Krah, Sebastian Meyer,  Vladimir Bashkirov, Reinhard Schulte, Robert P. Johnson, Katia Parodi, Guillaume Landry The role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the performance of proton computed tomography. August 2020, Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik,  Available online 11 August 2020: In Press, Corrected Proof Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a promising tomographic imaging modality allowing direct reconstruction of proton relative stopping power (RSP) required for proton therapy dose calculation. In this review article, we aim at highlighting the role of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation in pCT studies. After describing the requirements for performing proton computed tomography and the various pCT scanners actively used in recent research projects, we present an overview of available MC simulation platforms. The use of MC simulations in the scope of investigations of image reconstruction, and for the evaluation of optimal RSP accuracy, precision and spatial resolution omitting detector effects is then described. In the final sections of the review article, we present specific applications of realistic MC simulations of an existing pCT scanner prototype, which we describe in detail. (08/2020) (link)

Abstract

  • (NON-PEER REVIEWED) 3D High Speed RF Beam Scanner for Hadron Therapy of Cancer (07/2019 - 06/2022)