Publications

Scholarly Journals--Published

  • Townsend MK, Trabert B, Fortner RT, Arslan AA, Buring JE, Carter BD, Giles GG, Irvin SR, Jones ME, Kaaks R, Kirsh VA, Knutsen SF, Koh WP, Lacey JV, Langseth H, Larsson SC, Lee IM, Martínez ME, Merritt MA, Milne RL, O'Brien KM, Orlich MJ, Palmer JR, Patel AV, Peters U, Poynter JN, Robien K, Rohan TE, Rosenberg L, Sandin S, Sandler DP, Schouten LJ, Setiawan VW, Swerdlow AJ, Ursin G, van den Brandt PA, Visvanathan K, Weiderpass E, Wolk A, Yuan JM,  Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Tworoger SS, Wentzensen N. Cohort Profile: The Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). Int J Epidemiol. 2021 Oct 15:dyab211. doi:10.1093/ije/dyab211. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34652432. (10/2021)
  • Lee GJ, Oda K, Morton KR, Orlich M, Sabate J. Egg intake moderates the rate of memory decline in healthy older adults. J Nutr Sci. 2021 Sep 21;10:e79. doi: 10.1017/jns.2021.76. PMID: 34616550; PMCID: PMC8477346. (09/2021)
  • Oh J, Oda K, Ibrayev Y, Reis WP, Fraser GE, Orlich MJ, Knutsen SF. Lower Utilization of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Vegetarians, Adventist Health Study-2. J Cancer Educ. 2021 Jul 9. doi: 10.1007/s13187-021-02065-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34241788. (07/2021)
  • Miles FL, Mashchak A, Filippov V, Orlich MJ, Duerksen-Hughes P, Chen X, Wang C, Siegmund K, Fraser GE. DNA Methylation Profiles of Vegans and Non-Vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study-2 Cohort. Nutrients. 2020 Nov 30;12(12):3697. doi:10.3390/nu12123697. PMID: 33266012; PMCID: PMC7761449. (11/2020)
  • Fortner RT, Rice MS, Knutsen SF, Orlich MJ, Visvanathan K, Patel AV, Gaudet MM, Tjønneland A, Kvaskoff M, Kaaks R, Trichopolou A, Pala V, Onland-Moret NC, Gram IT, Amiano P, Idahl A, Allen NE, Weiderpass E, Poynter JN, Robien K, Giles GG, Milne RL, Setiawan VW, Merritt MA, van den Brandt PA, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Arslan AA, O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Wolk A, Håkansson N, Harris HR, Trabert B, Wentzensen N, Tworoger SS, Schouten LJ. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factor Associations by Primary Anatomic Site: The Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020 Oct;29(10):2010-2018. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0354. Epub 2020 Jul 30. PMID: 32732252; PMCID: PMC7541500. (10/2020)
  • Sherchan P, Miles F, Orlich M, Fraser G, Zhang JH, Talbot K, Duerksen-Hughes PJ. Effects of Lifestyle Factors on Cognitive Resilience: Commentary on "What This Sunny, Religious Town in California Teaches Us About Living Longer". Transl Stroke Res. 2020 Apr;11(2):161-164. doi: 10.1007/s12975-020-00788-y. Epub 2020 Feb 15. PMID: 32062815. (04/2020)
  • Fraser GE, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Orlich M, Mashchak A, Sirirat R, Knutsen S. Dairy, soy, and risk of breast cancer: those confounded milks. Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Feb 25:dyaa007. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyaa007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32095830. (02/2020)
  • Orlich MJ, Chiu THT, Dhillon PK, Key TJ, Fraser GE, Shridhar K, Agrawal S, Kinra S. Vegetarian Epidemiology: Review and Discussion of Findings from Geographically Diverse Cohorts. Adv Nutr. 2019 Nov 1;10(Supplement_4):S284-S295. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy109. PubMed PMID: 31728496; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC6855947. (11/2019)
  • Fraser GE, Cosgrove CM, Mashchak AD, Orlich MJ, Altekruse SF. Lower rates of cancer and all-cause mortality in an Adventist cohort compared with a US Census population. Cancer. 2019 Nov 25. doi: 10.1002/cncr.32571. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31762009. (11/2019)
  • Alshahrani SM, Fraser GE, Sabaté J, Knutsen R, Shavlik D, Mashchak A, Lloren JI, Orlich MJ. Red and Processed Meat and Mortality in a Low Meat Intake Population. Nutrients. 2019 Mar 14;11(3). pii: E622. doi: 10.3390/nu11030622. PubMed PMID: 30875776; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6470727. (03/2019)
  • Sinha R, Ahsan H, Blaser M, Caporaso JG, Carmical JR, Chan AT, Fodor A, Gail MH, Harris CC, Helzlsouer K, Huttenhower C, Knight R, Kong HH, Lai GY, Hutchinson DLS, Le Marchand L, Li H, Orlich MJ, Shi J, Truelove A, Verma M, Vogtmann E, White O, Willett W, Zheng W, Mahabir S, Abnet C. Next steps in studying the human microbiome and health in prospective studies,  Bethesda, MD, May 16-17, 2017. Microbiome. 2018 Nov 26;6(1):210. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0596-z. PubMed PMID: 30477563; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6257978. (11/2018)
  • Sabaté J, Burkholder-Cooley NM, Segovia-Siapco G, Oda K, Wells B, Orlich MJ, Fraser GE. Unscrambling the relations of egg and meat consumption with type 2 diabetes risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Nov 1;108(5):1121-1128. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy213. PubMed PMID: 30329007; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6250985. (11/2018)
  • Martins MCT, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Orlich M, Fan J, Mashchak A, Fraser GE. A New Approach to Assess Lifetime Dietary Patterns Finds Lower Consumption of Animal Foods with Aging in a Longitudinal Analysis of a Health-Oriented Adventist Population. Nutrients. 2017 Oct 13;9(10). pii: E1118. doi: 10.3390/nu9101118. PubMed PMID: 29027960; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5691734. Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using data from a reliable life-course dietary (meats, dairy, eggs) questionnaire. Results showed a marked tendency to consume fewer animal products (in total) in older years and to reduce consumption of meat, poultry and fish, but not eggs or dairy. Among the 29% of elderly subjects who during their lifetime kept the same dietary pattern (LTS) were: LTS-vegans (1.1%), LTS-lacto-ovo vegetarians (31.2%), LTS-pesco vegetarians (0.49%), LTS-semi vegetarians (3.7%), and LTS-non-vegetarians (63.5%). Among the 71% of switchers were "Converters" (59.7%) who moved towards and "Reverters" (9.1%) who moved away from vegetarian diets, and Multiverters (31.2%), who had moved in both directions. LTS-non-vegetarians, and also reverters, were more overweight and showed a less healthy lifestyle than others. We conclude that the dietary patterns are dynamic with strong trends to reduce animal foods and to adopt more vegetarian patterns with aging. The disease experience of subjects with different lifetime dietary patterns can be compared. (10/2017) (link)
  • Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Fan J, Sveen L, Bennett H, Knutsen SF, Beeson WL, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Butler TL, Herring RP, Fraser GE. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 May 1;175(5):767-76. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.59. PubMed PMID: 25751512; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4420687. IMPORTANCE: Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES: Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Vegetarian diets are associated with an overall lower incidence of colorectal cancers. Pescovegetarians in particular have a much lower risk compared with nonvegetarians. If such associations are causal, they may be important for primary prevention of colorectal cancers. (05/2015)
  • Orlich MJ, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabaté J, Fan J, Singh PN, Fraser GE. Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Br J Nutr. 2014 Nov 28;112(10):1644-53. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400261X. Epub 2014 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 25247790; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4232985. Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes. (11/2014)
  • Singh Pramil N, Arthur Kristen N, Orlich Michael J, James Wesley, Purty Anil, . . . Sabate Joan. (2014). Global epidemiology of obesity, vegetarian dietary patterns, and noncommunicable disease in Asian Indians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(1), 359S-364S. An increase in noncommunicable disease (NCD) in India has been attributed to an epidemiologic transition whereby, due to urbanization, there is an increase in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity. Accumulated biomarker data on the "Asian Indian phenotype" identify central obesity, which occurs at a lower body mass index (BMI), as a particularly potent risk factor in Asian Indians. A revised WHO case definition for obesity in India [BMI (in kg/m(2)) >25] has identified an obesity epidemic that exceeds 30% in some cities and rivals that in Western nations. This review summarizes 2 key lines of evidence: 1) the emergence of an obesity epidemic in urban and rural India and its contribution to the NCD burden and 2) the role of a "nutrition transition" in decreasing the whole plant food content of diets in India and increasing risk of obesity and NCDs. We then present new epidemiologic evidence from Asian Indians enrolled in the Adventist Health Study 2 that raises the possibility of how specific whole plant foods (eg, nuts) in a vegetarian dietary pattern could potentially prevent obesity and NCDs in a target population of >1 billion persons. (07/2014) (link)
  • Orlich MJ, Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets in the Adventist Health Study 2: a review of initial published findings. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100 Suppl 1:353S-8S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.071233. Epub 2014 Jun 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 24898223; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4144107. The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large cohort that is well suited to the study of the relation of vegetarian dietary patterns to health and disease risk. Here we review initial published findings with regard to vegetarian diets and several health outcomes. Vegetarian dietary patterns were associated with lower body mass index, lower prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus, lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its component factors, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower all-cause mortality, and in some instances, lower risk of cancer. Findings with regard to factors related to vegetarian diets and bone health are also reviewed. These initial results show important links between vegetarian dietary patterns and improved health. (06/2014)
  • Singh PN, Arthur KN, Orlich MJ, James W, Purty A, Job JS, Rajaram S, Sabaté J. Global epidemiology of obesity, vegetarian dietary patterns, and noncommunicable  disease in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 21;100(Supplement 1):359S-364S. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24847857; PubMed Central PMCID:  PMC4144108. An increase in noncommunicable disease (NCD) in India has been attributed to an epidemiologic transition whereby, due to urbanization, there is an increase in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity. Accumulated biomarker data on the "Asian Indian phenotype" identify central obesity, which occurs at a lower body mass index (BMI), as a particularly potent risk factor in Asian Indians. A revised WHO case definition for obesity in India [BMI (in kg/m(2)) >25] has identified an obesity epidemic that exceeds 30% in some cities and rivals that in Western nations. This review summarizes 2 key lines of evidence: 1) the emergence of an obesity epidemic in urban and rural India and its contribution to the NCD burden and 2) the role of a "nutrition transition" in decreasing the whole plant food content of diets in India and increasing risk of obesity and NCDs. We then present new epidemiologic evidence from Asian Indians enrolled in the Adventist Health Study 2 that raises the possibility of how specific whole plant foods (eg, nuts) in a vegetarian dietary pattern could potentially prevent obesity and NCDs in a target population of >1 billion persons. (05/2014)
  • Jacobs DR Jr, Orlich MJ. Diet pattern and longevity: do simple rules suffice?  A commentary. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 28;100(Supplement 1):313S-319S. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24871470; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4144105. Nutritionism reduces dietary advice to statements about a few nutrients, with sometimes unintended implications for science, industry, and the public. Although reductionist questions about nutrition are legitimate scientifically, a nutrient focus in the public arena forces the food industry to compete with the use of nutrient statements. Consumers must interpret information that may not be correct or relevant. The theory of food synergy, which postulates that the many constituents of individual foods and dietary patterns act together on health, leads to the idea that dietary policy would be clearer if it focused on foods. To illustrate this method, the food-based A Priori Diet Quality Score was described in the Iowa Women's Health Study; a substantial total mortality reduction for increasing quartiles of the score was found. The simple food-based rules implied in this a priori score support minimizing meat, salt, added sugar, and heavily processed foods while emphasizing phytochemical-rich foods. These principles could help improve nutrition policy, help industry to supply better food, and help to focus future scientific research. Although an understanding of what foods are best for health is a step forward in nutrition, other major challenges remain, including getting high-quality food to the masses and food sustainability. (05/2014)
  • Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Knutsen S, Beeson WL, Fraser GE. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 8;173(13):1230-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473. PubMed PMID: 23836264; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4191896. IMPORTANCE: Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. SETTING: Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 96,469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73,308 participants remained after exclusions. EXPOSURES: Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and vegan. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. RESULTS: There were 2570 deaths among 73,308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82-6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01); in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75-1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered carefully by those offering dietary guidance. (07/2013)

Abstract

  • Khocht A, Orlich M, Paster B, Bellinger D, Lenoir L, Irani C, Fraser G. Cross-sectional comparisons of subgingival microbiome and gingival fluid inflammatory cytokines in periodontally healthy vegetarians versus non-vegetarians. J Periodontal Res. 2021 Aug 27. doi: 10.1111/jre.12922. Epub aheadof print. PMID: 34449089. (08/2021)
  • Fraser G, & Orlich M. (2013). BIAS ASSOCIATED WITH SYSTEMATIC ERROR IN A BINARY DEPENDENT REGRESSION VARIABLE. Am J Epidemiol, 177, S103-S103. (06/2013)

Books and Chapters

  • Chapter title:  Risk of Cancer in Vegetarians (Chapter 5)Chapter authors: Michael J. Orlich and Renae M. ThomasBook title: Vegetarian Nutrition and WellnessEditor: Winston CraigPublisher: CRC Press, 2018 (10/2018) (link)
  • Chapter 24. "Vegetarian Diets and the Microbiome" - Michael J. Orlich, Gina Siapco and Sarah JungVegetarian and Plant-Based Diets in Health and Disease Prevention1st EditionEditors: François MariottieBook ISBN: 9780128039694Hardcover ISBN: 9780128039687Imprint: Academic PressPublished Date: 30th May 2017Page Count: 922 https://www.elsevier.com/books/vegetarian-and-plant-based-diets-in-health-and-disease-prevention/mariotti/978-0-12-803968-7 (05/2017) (link)

Non-Scholarly Journals

  • "Roy Branson: I Know in Part", a memorial poem, published in Spectrum (10/2015)
  • "The Weightier Matters: Adventists and Obesity" by Gary E. Fraser and Michael J. Orlich in The Advenist Review (03/2015)
  • A poem, "Communications Tower", published by Inlandia: INLANDIA: A LITERARY JOURNEY (THE OFFICIAL LITERARY JOURNAL OF THE INLANDIA INSTITUTE) (01/2015) (link)